Lifecycles
Adolescence
Women of Reproductive Age
Pregnancy
Delivery/PNC
Early Childhood
School Age
Adolescence
The age group from 10-19 years of age is when children experience a second growth spurt and complete the physical and mental transition into adulthood. The needs for a diverse well rounded diet are greater during adolescence than at any other period in the life cycle, except pregnancy. Adolescence is the time to develop lifelong habits, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise to prevent undernutrition, anaemia, micronutrient deficiencies, overweight/obesity and eating disorders.
Manifestation
Interventions
Essential public health and nutrition services to ensure the health and wellbeing of the population.
Determinants
Includes food, health, caring practices, social safety nets, hygiene/sanitation and women’s empowerment.
Improved Toilet Improved Water Child Faeces Disposal Open Defecation Women's Literacy Health Insurance Iodized Salt Population Electricity
Women of Reproductive Age
This age group is normally defined as 15-49 years of age when women can give birth to children. Women’s nutrition is critical to ensure that she can reach her full potential. But her nutrition is also important for families and communities. When women are healthy and can access resources, they invest in the nutrition, education and health of their family leading to economic growth and development of societies.
Manifestation
Undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, overweight/obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases.
Low BMI Overweight Obesity Anaemia High Blood Sugar Blood Pressure
Interventions
Essential public health and nutrition services to ensure the health and wellbeing of the population.
Contraception Family Planning
Pregnancy
Pregnancy marks the beginning of the first 1000 days from conception to the 2nd year of the child. This period of intense physical growth and development demands a larger and more nutrient dense diet than normal. Poor weight gain in pregnancy can lead to low birth weight, increased risk of illness and developmental delays. Excess weight gain can lead to higher risk births. Healthy diets are associated with fewer pregnancy complications such as gestational diabetes and hypertension and a healthy childbirth.
Manifestation
Undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, overweight/obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases.
Anaemia
Interventions
Essential public health and nutrition services to ensure the health and wellbeing of the population.
MCP Card ANC (1st trimester) ANC (4+) Neonatal TT Supp Food IFA Consumption
Determinants
Includes food, health, caring practices, social safety nets, hygiene/sanitation and women’s empowerment.
Improved Toilet Improved Water Child Faeces Disposal Open Defecation Women's Literacy Health Insurance Iodized Salt Population Electricity
Delivery/PNC
The period from the delivery of a child to the end of post-natal care visits (PNC) are critical moments to ensure the health, nutrition and wellbeing for women and children. It is a time of both tremendous potential and enormous vulnerability. Institutional births help to ensure safe childbirth and can support the early initiation of breastfeeding within the 1st hour of life. Women continue to need a diverse and nutrient dense diet and appropriate health care to enable the physiological feat of producing breastmilk for her baby.
Manifestation
Undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, overweight/obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases.
Interventions
Essential public health and nutrition interventions are services to ensure the health and wellbeing of the population.
Inst. Delivery Skilled Birth Attendant Birth Registry Early Initiation BF PNC (Babies)
Determinants
Includes food, health, caring practices, social safety nets, hygiene/sanitation and women’s empowerment.
Improved Toilet Improved Water Child Faeces Disposal Open Defecation Women's Literacy Health Insurance Iodized Salt Population Electricity
Early Childhood
Early childhood marks the second stage of the 1,000 days and a critical window of opportunity to shape a child’s growth and development. Early infancy presents some of the highest demands for a nutritious diet to enable the extraordinary physical and mental growth during the first growth spurt. Breastmilk is the ultimate superfood containing a full range of nutrients, growth factors and hormones vital for the child. After six months, solid foods are needed with continued breastfeeding and appropriate services to prevent anaemia, micronutrient deficiencies, environmental enteropathies and childhood illness.
Manifestation
Undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, overweight/obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases.
Stunting Wasting Severe Wasting MUAC <125 mm MUAC <115 mm Underweight Severe Underweight Overweight Low Birth Weight Anaemia Iron Deficiency Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin B12 Zinc NMR IMR U5-MR
Interventions
Essential public health and nutrition services to ensure the health and wellbeing of the population.
Full immunization Vitamin A Rx ARI/Pneumonia Rx ORS Rx for Diarrhoea Zinc Rx for Diarrhoea Supp Food
School Age
The period from 5 to 9 years of age when children start school has important nutrition and health needs which have often been overlooked. While growth has slowed following early childhood, the macronutrients and micronutrients needs for children are higher relative to body size compared to adults. Children need to be protected against malnutrition, anaemia and micronutrient deficiencies with appropriate diverse diets and health care in order to reach to their full educational potential.
Manifestation
Undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, overweight/obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases.
Stunting Underweight Low BMI Overweight Anaemia Vitamin A Vitamin D Iron Deficiency Folate Vitamin B12 Zinc Cholesterol Triglycerides High Blood Sugar Glycosylated Hb
Interventions
Essential public health and nutrition services to ensure the health and wellbeing of the population.
Determinants
Includes food, health, caring practices, social safety nets, hygiene/sanitation and women’s empowerment.
Improved Toilet Improved Water Child Faeces Disposal Open Defecation Women's Literacy Health Insurance Iodized Salt Population Electricity